The chlorine content and pH value are measured. Clean water in the pool. Photo: adobe stock
Water care is an extremely important issue: after all, you want to enjoy your swimming pool to the fullest, and perfect water quality is crucial for this. How and with which means this succeeds best, you read in our technical contribution.
The credo is: swimming pool water is a "food"! the bather lives with his whole body in this water, he swallows it, he smells it, he gets it in his ears, nose and eyes. Swimming pool water is circulating water, usually circulates one season and is only changed by refilling fresh water after filter backwash or. The natural evaporation "refreshed" again. Therefore, there is a need for balanced water maintenance.
In public baths this is regulated by law and implemented and controlled by automatic measuring, regulating and dosing technology. For the private area the pool owner takes the responsibility for the carefree, healthy bathing pleasure.
Without good filtration and circulation, the effect of the chemical treatment is lost
Water maintenance can be divided into three areas, but they are all interdependent:
- Physical water treatment (filtration, circulation, basin hydraulics)
- Chemical water treatment (ph value, disinfection)
- Additional measures (flocculation, algae prevention).
The basis for a perfectly functioning water care is certainly the filtration and circulation, because without this, the chemical treatment is almost ineffective. However, it should be noted that optically clear water (works with good filtration) is not necessarily biologically pure water, it requires chemical water treatment.
With chemical water treatment, we create the prerequisite for "healthy" water. the basis for water care is the correct ph-value. It creates the basis for the mode of action of the water care products used. This is best illustrated by chlorine, which is still the most common and widely used disinfectant.
Here are two examples to illustrate: at a pH value of 6, the effectiveness of the chlorine is a maximum of 92 percent. At a pH value of 8, on the other hand, the effectiveness of the chlorine drops to a maximum of 25%. This means that in example two you measure 0.8 mg of free chlorine in the pool water, but only 0.2 mg of chlorine is effective. Similar is the case with other disinfectants.
The pH value therefore requires constant monitoring, because it can change permanently: due to rain, sun, heating and other environmental influences.
Disinfection works according to the correct ph-value setting
In summary, the ideal pH value setting of 7.0 to 7.4 is necessary so that all disinfection and flocculation products work, the pool construction is not damaged by corrosion or lime precipitation, we feel comfortable in the water and the skin is not depleted (pH value too high) or reddened (pH value too low), and finally algae formation is prevented. A tip: the right products for ph-value regulation can be obtained from your specialist dealer.
Disinfection serves to create hygienically clean water and begins after the correct pH value has been set. The disinfectant kills bacteria, germs, viruses and prevents the formation of fungi, biofilms and algae. The following products are used as disinfectants in practice:
- Active oxygen
- PHMB products, so-called biguanides (polyhexanmethylene biguanide)
Chlorine is a universally applicable and proven disinfectant, which can be used as tablets in different sizes, possibly combined with flocculants (not suitable for cartridge filters) and/or algae protection, or as a disinfectant. Granules can be used. Liquid chlorine is used especially for automatic dosing. Furthermore, there are special "fast-soluble chlorine products", which are used, among other things, for shock chlorination in the case of severe turbidity or algae formation. Attention: used (bound chlorine) in the water leads to an unpleasant chlorine smell, which can be counteracted by regular fresh water supply, for example after backwashing.
Bromine, active oxygen and other disinfectants
a note on bromine: the tablet or. The stick dissolves only slowly in the water and is therefore dissolved in a so-called "bromine sluice" and added to the water circuit via a dosing valve.
Active oxygen is a skin-friendly, odorless, gentle form of disinfection that uses oxygen-splitting compounds such as hydrogen peroxide or persulfate. The products are offered as tablets, granules and in liquid form for automatic dosing. PHMB products are available from a number of manufacturers. The application is simple and safe if the manufacturer’s instructions are followed. The product cannot be combined with chlorine.
In addition to these products, there are also. Reduction of chemical consumption the processes of disinfection by ozone resp. UV put to use. Both methods are complementary, as they do not have a depot effect (permanent disinfection potential).
The flocculant provides a clear view of the water. This binds the smallest suspended particles into larger units, which can be filtered in this way.
Algaecides are mainly used to prevent the formation of algae and not to combat them. In the case of severe algae infestation, only shock chlorination will help in principle. All processes can also be partially or completely automated in the private sector.
In summary: water treatment is a complex process that must be taken into account as early as the planning stage of the pool:
- Type of disinfection (with chlorine or chlorine-free),
- Which water is used (local water analysis recommended), for example, well water is not recommended, as it usually has a very high mineral content, which can lead to unsightly discoloration in the pool.
- Sufficient design of the technical room.
In cooperation with the specialist dealer, individual solutions adapted to the local conditions are offered.
Text: rainer frohlich
Bayrol: variable chlorine application
For conventional disinfection with chlorine, bayrol has an extensive range of products. "varitab" is a 300 g multifunctional chlorine tablet that u.A. For the shock disinfection of the sand filter, the permanent disinfection of the pool water, the flocculation as well as the hardness and chlorine stabilization is used (ca. Every two weeks). The granulate "complete& easy" provides weekly disinfection of the pool water and algae prevention. Photo: bayrol
Topras: intuitive and automatic
"topmatic" from topras is an automatic measuring and control system for pH value and disinfection. As soon as there are deviations from the limit values, the system informs the user by means of an acoustic and visual signal. the operation of the "topmatic" is intuitive, all values can be easily read on a large, four-line display. Photo: topras
Peraqua: self-cleaning system
Fully automatic, hygienic and convenient – these are the attributes of the self-cleaning salt electrolysis systems from peraqua. The compact design is adapted for use in technical rooms. High-quality components such as titanium electrodes ensure a long service life. Clear displays document the most important values such as temperature, salt level or the status of the self-cleaning cell at a glance. Photo: peraqua
"delphin multiflock bio" by chemoform is a biodegradable flocculant – it forms large filterable flocs, removes bound phosphates and heavy metals (copper), and removes sun milk residues from the water. The product is based entirely on renewable raw materials and can be combined with all disinfection methods. Photo: chemoform
"din-o-zon K2″ from dinotec is based on ozone technology and stands for environmentally friendly, hygienically clean swimming pool water care. This significantly reduces the use of chemical water care products. Ozone is produced physically from atmospheric oxygen and decomposes into oxygen after reacting with bacteria and organic substances. The ozone is produced by the device directly at the point of use and always only in the required quantities. Photo: dinotec
Dryden aqua: ensures flocculation
APF (all poly floc) is a coagulant and flocculant. It flocculates the smallest turbid substances into large filterable flocs and also coagulates dissolved substances such as phosphates. Used correctly, APF can reduce oxidant consumption by up to 80 percent. Dosing should be carried out via a flocculation pump. In the optimum case, APF from dryden aqua is added upstream of the filter via a ZPM mixer (static mixer). Photo: dryden aqua
Pentair: chlorine from table salt
With "ichlor", pentair offers a salt chlorine generator that uses normal table salt for chlorine production. The disinfection performance is the same as with the manual addition of chlorine. A display can be used to check the salt content, cell cleanliness, disinfection output and water flow rate. Integrated sensors ensure that the water flow is sufficient for safe chlorine production. The device is suitable for pools up to 75 000 liters. Photo: pentair
Saltmaster: less salt
"aqualine fresh" is a tubular cell electrolysis system. Thanks to a newly coated electrolysis cell, the appliance works very efficiently, i.e. significantly less salt is required for chlorine production. The device is available in two versions: AF 15 produces 15 grams of chlorine per hour, AF 22 produces 22 grams in the same period of time. Photo: saltmaster